the Nightingale’s Sonata

List of Characters


Because there are so many characters in this story, the following alphabetical list provides a quick guide to help identify some of them. I have included both general biographical information as well as ways in which they are related to the main characters.

Because the main characters are referred to so often, I have used initials for them as follows:

  • LL = Lea Luboshutz

  • OG = Onissim Goldovsky

  • RK = Rashel Khin

  • BG = Boris Goldovsky

  • IGW = Irina Goldovsky, later Irene Wolf

I have also followed certain rules:

  1. I have used a single spelling for Russian surnames to make it easier to track relatives even though in Russian, males and females have different endings for the same family name (e.g., Goldovsky for a man and Goldovskaya for a woman). In this list, I use the masculine ending for both (Goldovsky).

  2. In quotes, I have provided nicknames or alternative names for characters who are referred to in multiple ways in the text. For example Katherine Luboshutz is also called “Gitel” and “Babushka.”

  3. In the case of married women, I have listed them alphabetically under the married surname.

  4. In cases where women used their maiden names as their stage or literary names and did not take their husband’s name, the entry is under the maiden name (as for example Anna Luboshutz and Rashel Khin).

  5. At the end of the alphabetical list is a listing of tsars and tsaritsas [1] mentioned in the text, with birth and death dates as well as the dates of their reigns.

  6. Birth and death years are provided where known. Death years were current through 2018.

Family Trees

Click on the images below to view diagrams for the families of Lea Luboshutz and Onissim Goldovsky (top), as well as Lea and Onissim’s descendants (bottom).

The Families of Lea Luboshutz and Onissim Goldovsky

The Families of Lea Luboshutz and Onissim Goldovsky

Onissim Goldovsky and Lea Luboshutz’s Descendants

Onissim Goldovsky and Lea Luboshutz’s Descendants



Alexandrovich, Grand Duke Sergei (1857–1905) – Governor of Moscow and younger brother of Alexander III, he was largely responsible for the enthusiastic implementation of anti-Semitic policy.

Altschuler, Modest (1873–1963) – Russian cellist, orchestra conductor and composer.  A Moscow Conservatory graduate who emigrated to New York in 1893, he established the Russian Symphony Orchestra there in 1905 and offered LL her first invitation to play in the United States in 1907.

Amati, Hieronymus (1649–1740) – The last violin maker of the famous Amati family of Cremona, Italy, he is sometimes credited with being the teacher of Carlo Bergonzi whose violins are today considered among the finest ever made.

Aranyi, Jelly d’ (1893–1966) – Hungarian female violinist, the grand-niece of Joseph Joachim who, because her career paralleled that of LL, was sometimes compared to her.

Arensky, Anton (1861–1906) – Russian composer featured on LL’s only known recording.

Ashkenasi, Shmuel (1941– ) – One of Efrem Zimbalist’s prize students at the Curtis Institute of Music who was the founding first violinist of the Vermeer Quartet.  Andrew Wolf played his first performance of the César Franck sonata with him.

Auer, Leopold (1845–1930) – Hungarian violinist and pedagogue who taught both in Russia and later in the United States. He invited LL to study with him in St. Petersburg but the family could not afford to send her. Later, he taught with LL at the Curtis Institute of Music.

Auer, Nadine Pelikan (1855–1932) – Russian-born first wife of violinist Leopold Auer (they divorced in 1901). Friend of OG and RK.

Azef, Yevno (1869–1918) – Police spy for the Tsar’s secret police who infiltrated the banned Socialist-Revolutionary Party but eventually was suspected of being a double agent. 


Babel, Isaac (1894–1940) – Russian language journalist, playwright, literary translator, and short story writer.

Bach, Johann Sebastian (1685–1750) – German composer and musician of the Baroque period.

Bachmann, Edwin (1890–1986) – Hungarian violinist who joined the Curtis Institute faculty and played second violin to LL’s first violin in the Curtis String Quartet.

Bailly, Louis (1882–1974) –  Canadian violinist and violist, faculty member at the Curtis Institute of Music from 1925 until 1941 and a member of both the first Curtis String Quartet and the second (in which LL played first violin and Bailly played viola).

Bakunin, Mikhail (1814–1876) – Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism. He is considered among the most influential figures of anarchism and one of the principal founders of the social anarchist tradition.

Balin, Rabbi Carole (1964– ) – Biographer of RK whose book To Reveal Our Hearts: Jewish Women Writers in Tsarist Russia (published in the year 2000) was the first indication to many OG family members of the identity of his wife.

Barber, Samuel (1910–1981) – Among the most famous of 20th century American composers, he was a student of composition, voice, and piano at the Curtis Institute starting at the age of 14.

Barrett, Herbert (1910–2007) – Influential talent manager and publicist in the classical music world during the second half of the twentieth century. 

Bebutov, Prince David Iosifoviich (1850–1929) – A member of the Party of Democratic Reform whose memoirs provide a glimpse of the workings of the Moscow Masons of which he was a member.

Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770–1827) – German composer and pianist whose “Kreutzer” sonata for violin and piano inspired a novella of the same name by Lev Tolstoy.  The sonata was played often by LL and other members of her family.

Belyayev, Mitrofan Petrovich (1836–1904) – Imperial Russian music publisher responsible for the publication of Reinhold Glière’s Romance opus 4 that was written in 1903 and dedicated to LL.

Benko, Gregor (1944– ) – Music historian and author with specialized knowledge about pianist Josef Hofmann.

Bergonzi, Carlo (1683–1747) – Italian luthier, possible maker of a violin that LL played prior to purchasing the Nightingale Stradivarius.

Beria, Lavrentiy Pavlovich (1899–1953) – Long-time head of the secret police apparatus in the Soviet Union who had become deputy premiere after World War II. Shereshevsky appealed to him to save his life during the Doctor’s Plot.

Berlioz, Hector (1803–1869) – French composer of the opera “The Trojans” which BG premiered in the United States in 1955.

Bernstein, Herman (1876–1935) – Russian-born American investigative journalist who interviewed OG in 1908 and later covered the Russian Revolution for the New York Herald.

Bloch, Ernest (1880–1959) – Swiss composer whose music was in LL’s repertoire.

Bloom, Peter (1943– ) – Oboist, Curtis Institute of Music graduate, and musicologist specializing in the work of Hector Berlioz.

Bok, Edward (1863–1930) – Dutch-born American editor and prize-winning author; editor of Ladies’ Home Journal for 30 years. Husband of Mary Curtis Bok, founder of the Curtis Institute of Music.

Bok, Mary Louise Curtis (1876–1970) – Daughter of Cyrus Curtis (founder of Curtis Publishing Company). Philanthropist and founder of the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia. Her first husband was Edward Bok. Her second husband was Efrem Zimbalist. Patron and friend of LL.

Borodin, Alexander (1833–1887) – Russian Romantic composer of Georgian origin, one of the prominent 19th-century composers known as The Mighty Handful, a group dedicated to producing a uniquely Russian kind of classical music, rather than imitating earlier Western European models.

Bos, Coenraad V. (1875–1955) – Pianist who performed with Pierre Luboshutz and Arturo Toscanini in 1935.

Bourdeau de Coutrai, Louise [later Madame Eugene Ysaÿe] (1868–1924) – The woman at whose marriage ceremony the César Franck violin and piano sonata was played for the first time by her husband-to-be, Eugene Ysaÿe.

Brahms, Johannes (1833–1897) – German composer and pianist whose violin concerto was premiered by Joseph Joachim. LL hoped to study the work with Joachim but he refused to teach her.

Braun, Edith Evans (1887–1976) – Pianist, faculty member of the Curtis Institute of Music, and one of the three musicians in the first all-female ensemble of soloists with LL and Elsa Hilger in the Beethoven Triple Concerto with the Philadelphia Orchestra.

Brent, Jonathan (1949– ) – American academic, author, and publisher, founder of “Yale’s Annuls of Communism” series, with expertise concerning Stalin’s so-called “Doctors’ Plot” in Soviet Russia that entrapped Nikolai Shereshevsky.

Bruch, Max (1838–1920) – German Romantic composer and conductor whose concerto for violin and orchestra was one often performed by LL.

Burgin, Richard (1892–1981) – Polish violinist who studied with both Joachim and Auer and served as concertmaster of the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1920 until 1962.  Burgin played the first American performance of the Prokofiev’s violin concerto no. 1 on 24 April 1925.

Burleigh, Henry (1866–1949) – African American composer that LL sometimes included on her programs.

Burt, Nathaniel (1914–2003) – American composer, poet, author, and lecturer who wrote The Perennial Philadelphians.

Burtsev, Vladimir (1862–1942) – Revolutionary activist, scholar, publisher, and editor of several Russian language periodicals who broke the story of Yevno Azef working as an informer for the secret police.


Caldwell, Sarah (1924–2006) – A student of BG’s at Tanglewood who became his chief assistant for eleven years before going on to a distinguished career as conductor, opera impresario, and founder of the Opera Company of Boston.

Casals, Pablo (1876–1973) – Cellist, composer and conductor.  Stayed as guest at LL and OG’s apartment during an early tour of Russia. Reunited with LL in the United States more than half a century later.

Chaliapin, Fyodor Ivanovich (1873–1938) – Russian singer who performed and toured with both of the Luboshutz sisters and introduced LL to Sol Hurok in Paris.

Chasins, Abram (1903–1987) – American composer, pianist, piano teacher, lecturer, musicologist, music broadcaster, radio executive and author. Luboshutz & Nemenoff performed his ‘Carmen’ Fantasie for two pianos.

Chekhov, Anton (1860–1904) – One of Russia’s most popular writers of plays and short stories. Also a physician.

Chernetskaya, Esther [later Esther Chernetskaya-Geshelin] (?–1922) – Pianist from Odessa who studied at the Moscow Conservatory with Safonov and formed a female trio with Anna Luboshutz and LL with whom she lived in an apartment in Moscow. Later, a respected piano pedagogue.

Chopin, Frederic (1810–1849) – Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era.

Coates, Albert (1982–1953) – English conductor and composer. Born in St. Petersburg, he studied in Russia, England, and Germany, before beginning his career as a conductor in a series of German opera houses. In 1919 he was appointed chief conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra.

Codd, Margaret – See Goldovsky, Margaret.

Cole, Orlando (1908–2010) – American cellist, both a student and later a faculty member at the Curtis Institute of Music and member of the long-standing Curtis Quartet.

Conus, Julius (1868–1942) – Russian violinist and composer. LL returned to Odessa during the summer of 1903 to work on his violin concerto with her father.

Cooper, James Fenimore (1789–1851) – Major American writer of frontier and Native American romance novels.

Copland, Aaron (1900-1990) – Musician whose compositions are often credited with exemplifying an American style and sound and are frequently performed in concert halls around the world.

Cui, César (1868–1942) – Russian composer featured on LL’s only known recording.

Curtin, Phyllis (1921–2016) – American opera singer and pedagogue who received early training and performance opportunities under BG.

Curtis, Cyrus (1850–1933) – Immensely successful and wealthy American publisher of such magazines as the “Saturday Evening Post” and the “Ladies Home Journal.”  Father of Mary Curtis Bok Zimbalist.

Curtis, Louisa (née Knapp)(1851–1910) – Editor of Ladies Home Journal magazine. Wife of Cyrus Curtis and mother of Mary Louise Curtis. Daughter Mary Curtis married Edward Bok, the editor who succeeded Louisa at the magazine. It was also Mary who founded the Curtis Institute of Music after Louisa’s death.


Darrieux, Marcel (1897–1979) – French violinist who soloed in the world premiere of the Prokofiev violin concerto on October 18, 1923.

Dello Joio, Norman (1913–2008) – Pulitzer-prize winning American composer who wrote music for Luboshutz & Nemenoff.

Derov, Artyemii Ivanovich (1856–1921) – Major Russian industrialist in south Siberia with interests in the development of the Great Siberian Railway. Important client of OG with whom he travelled to London in 1909.

Dewey, John (1859–1952) – American philosopher, psychologist, and education reformer whose progressive philosophy inspired the curriculum of IGW’s first American school.

Diaz, Justino (1940– ) – American operatic singer who studied with BG and sang his first important roles with BG’s company.

Dincin, Jeanette (1902–1967) – Second wife of Eugene Ysaÿe.  A fellow violinist 44 years his junior, she cared for him during the final ten years of his life and, thereafter, it was she who would attempt to keep alive his legacy.

Doguereau, Paul (1908–2000) – French pianist and piano pedagogue whose sister painted Pierre Luboshutz’s portrait.  Pierre most likely heard the boy play on a trip to Paris in 1914.

Doguereau, Yvonne (1895–1955) – French-born artist who met Pierre Luboshutz on one of his concert tours to Paris and painted his portrait in 1914.  As of 2019, the picture remained in a family collection in Moscow.

Dohnanyi, Ernst von (1877–1960) – Hungarian-born composer, pianist, and conductor. Conducted the orchestra in one of LL’s first concerts in New York and later became BG’s piano teacher in Budapest.

Dostoyevsky, Fyodor (1821–1881) – Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist, and philosopher.  His former mistress, Polina Suslova, married OG’s friend Vasily Rozanov and attempted an affair with OG as well.

Downes, Olin (1886–1955) – Influential New York Times music critic and  Quizmaster on the Texaco Radio Opera Quiz at the Metropolitan Opera when BG made his debut on the program.

Dreyfus, Alfred (1859–1935) – French artillery officer of Jewish background whose trial and conviction in 1894 on charges of treason became a celebrated case that divided the French nation and inspired Emile Zola to write “J’Accuse.”

Druian, Rafael (1922–2002) – Student of LL; Russian-born American violinist and conductor who served as concertmaster for the New York Philharmonic, the Cleveland Orchestra, and other ensembles, and purchased LL’s Stradivarius violin after her death.

Duncan, Isadora (1877–1927) – American dance pioneer; Pierre Luboshutz was her accompanist in Russia and she helped him emigrate. Friend of the Luboshutz family.

Dvořák, Antonín (1841–1904) – Czech composer. Anna Luboshutz played his cello concerto at her graduation recital after hearing Pablo Casals play it at a Moscow concert.


El Greco (1541–1614) – Painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.

Elisabeth (HRH) (1891–1967) – Queen consort of Belgium as the spouse of King Albert I, she was a fine violinist who studied with Ysaÿe and, after hearing LL, invited her to play at the palace.

Elman, Mischa (1891–1967) – Russian violinist, a close friend of LL.  He, along with Efrem Zimbalist and Jascha Heifitz, became one of the most successful Russian-born violinists in the United States in the first half of the 20th century.


Feldshtein, Mikhael Solomonovich “Misha” (1884–1938 or 1939) – Son of the writer RK and Solomon Feldshtein and brother-in-law of Marina Tsvetaeva. He studied law at Moscow University, was arrested several times, and was accused of espionage and executed in 1938 or 1939.

Feldshtein, Solomon Mikhaelovich – Russian lawyer; first husband of RK and the father of her only child.

Feodorovna, Maria (1847–1928) – Princess Dagmar of Denmark prior to her marriage to Tsar Alexander III; mother of Tsar Nicolas II.

Feuerbach, Ludwig (1804–1872) – German philosopher and precursor of Hegel whose wisdom was quoted to OG by one of his mentors, Rudolf Minstov.

Fiedler, Arthur (1894–1979) – Long-time conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra with whom Andrew Wolf soloed on numerous occasions.

Figes, Orlando (1959– ) – British historian who has written important works on Russia and the Russian Revolution.

Flanagan, Maria Fogel (1962– ) – Russian-speaking great-granddaughter of LL who accompanied IGW on her return trip to Russia in 1990. Later worked in Moscow and met the extended Luboshutz family there. Helped IGW prepare her oral history.

Flaubert, Gustave (1821–1880) – Celebrated French writer who was part of RK’s literary circle during her early years as a student in Paris.

Fleischhut, Richard (1881–1951) – German photographer who until 1939 he served as a cruise ship photographer for the shipping line “Norddeutsche Lloyd“ taking photos of famous travelers including one of LL, Josef and Betty Hofmann, and others on 3 June 1931 on the ship “Bremen.”

Flesch, Carl (1873–1944) – Hungarian violinist and pedagogue who taught at the Curtis Institute of Music until 1928 and played first violin in the first iteration of the Curtis String Quartet. He left, in part, in protest over LL’s appointment to the faculty.

Fogel, Alexa (1960– ) – IGW’s oldest grandchild, Alexandra Wolf Fogel’s oldest child. Film producer and casting director.

Fogel, Alexandra Wolf (1936– ) – IGW’s oldest child and LL’s oldest female grandchild.

Fogel, Marya – See Flanagan, Mara Fogel.

Folger, Henry Clay (1857–1930) – President and Chairman of Standard Oil of New York; collector of Shakespeareana and founder of the Folger Shakespeare Library.

France, Anatole (1844–1924) – French writer, friend of Onissim Goldovsky and Rashel Khin who had written in support of the accused Jewish officer, Alfred Dreyfus, in 1901.

Franck, César (1822–1890) – French composer of the sonata for violin and piano that became an important part of the family history of LL and OG.

Franco, Francisco (1892–1975) – Military dictator who ruled Spain from 1939 until his death.

Frankel, Hetty – One of LL’s minders on her first American tourInsisted that LL return to Russia when it became clear she was pregnant.

Franklin, Calvin M. (1887–1941) – Artist representative who handled details for LL in her concerts with Josef Hofmann.

Freeman, J.C. (1867–1953) – Eminent expert and connoisseur of violins. Handled the sale of the “Nightingale” Stradivarius to LL for the Wurlitzer company.


Galat, Nadezhda – See Koussevitsky, Nadezhda Galat.

Garkavi, Anna Osipovna – See Goldovsky, Anna Osipovna.

Garkavi, Vladimir Osipovich (1846–1911) – Russian jurist and prominent leader in Moscow’s Jewish community.  Brother of OG’s stepmother Anna who introduced OG to the field of law. Head of the Jewish Educational Society (общество распространения просвещения среди евреев).

Gatsch, Maurice (1874–1953?) – Piano tuner for Josef Hofmann.

Geer, Ella (1907–2000) – Violin student at the Curtis Institute of Music who had written a letter home describing one of LL’s concerts.

Gernet, Mikhail Nikolaevich (1874–1953) – Law professor at Moscow State University who published several books on criminology and the death penalty and was co-editor with OG of Against the Death Penalty.

Gimbel, Ellis (1865–1950) – Jewish Department store magnate in Philadelphia and founder of Philmont Country Club.

Ginsberg, Akim – Legal assistant to OG who was present during the serious street violence outside the Goldovsky home in October 1905.

Gippius, Zinaida Nikolayevna (1869–1945) – Russian poet, playwright, editor, short story writer, and religious thinker. Close friend of Vasily Rozanov.

“Gitel” See Luboshutz, Katherine.

Glazunov, Alexander (1865–1936) – Russian Romantic period composer whose violin concerto LL played at her debut in Berlin and often thereafter.

Glehn, Alfred von [born Konstantin Edmundovich von Glehn] (1858–1927) – Russian cellist. Anna Luboshutz’s teacher at the Moscow Conservatory.  Another Glehn student, Gregor Piatigorsky, became Pierre Luboshutz’s frequent recital partner.

Glière, Reinhold (1875–1956) – Russian composer who dedicated a “Romance” to Lea Luboshutz and was so taken with Anna Luboshutz’s cello version of his ballet “Krasnyi Tsvetok” (The Red Flower) that he rewrote some of the original for her to perform with symphony orchestras.

Glinka, Mikhail (1804–1857) – First Russian composer to gain wide recognition in his own country; considered fountainhead of Russian classical music.

Gluck, Christoph Ritter von (1714-1787) – German composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.

Godowsky, Leopold (1870–1938) – Polish American pianist and composer.  LL included some of his arrangements in her concert programs. Often mistaken for a Goldovsky relative though the surname is slightly different.

Gogol, Nikolay Vasilyevich (1809–1852) – Russian humorist, dramatist, and novelist of Ukrainian origin.

Goldovsky, Anna Osipovna Garkavi (?–1909) – Stepmother of OG (second wife of OG’s father, Boris Isaakovich Goldovsky). Sister of jurist Vladimir Osipovich Garkavi, who introduced OG to the field of law.

Goldovsky, Boris Isaakovich (1836–?) – OG’s father. Merchant of the Second Guild.

Goldovsky, Boris Onissimovich (1908–2001) – Second child of OG and LL. Director of opera departments at Tanglewood Music Center, New England Conservatory, Cleveland Institute of Music, and Curtis Institute of Music where he had been a student of Fritz Reiner; founder of New England Opera Theatre and Goldovsky Opera Theater.

Goldovsky, Dmitri Yurievich (1931–1988) – Son of Yuri Goldovsky and oldest grandchild of LL and OG.

Goldovsky, Ignatz (called John) (1866–date unknown) – One of OG’s two brothers who married Genrietta Patrovna Goldovsky and was divorced from her in 1902. They were parents of a daughter who went into the medical field.

Goldovsky, Ilya (1988– ) – Son of Marina Dmitrovna Goldovsky and grandson of Dmitri Goldovsky.

Goldovsky, Irina Onissimovna – See Wolf, Irene Goldovsky.

Goldovsky, Margaret Codd (1911–2004) – BG’s wife, fellow student at the Curtis Institute of Music, and a professional singer during the early years of their marriage.

Goldovsky, Marina Borisovna (1939–2006) – American-born daughter of BG and Margaret Codd.

Goldovsky, Marina Dmitrovna (1954–2017) – Daughter of Dmitri and Natalya Yutkevich Levy Goldovsky. Grand-niece of IGW.

Goldovsky, Marina Evseevna (1941– ) – Film maker who prompted IGW’s trip to Russia and made a film about the Shereshevsky’s apartment building. Though at one time IGW thought she might be related, her surname (ГолЬдовская) is spelled differently by one letter (Голдовская).  Known in film circles as Marina Goldovskaya.

Goldovsky, Michael (1937–1995) – American-born son of BG and Margaret Codd Goldovsky.

Goldovsky, Mikhail “Misha” (1868–?) – One of OG’s two brothers, a chemist and the father of three sons and a daughter.

Goldovsky, Natalya Levy (1907–1985) – Mathematician and wife of Yuri Goldovsky.  Mother of Dmitri Goldovsky. After Yuri’s death, remarriage to Vadim Solovskii for whom she bore another child – Mariya Sokolovskii (Dmitri’s half-sister). Third husband was Konstantin Semendyaev.

Goldovsky, Natalya Yutkevich (1929–1978) – First wife of Dmitri Goldovsky and mother of Marina Goldovsky. The daughter of Soviet film director Sergey Yutkevich, Natalya worked as a film editor.

Goldovsky, Onissim Borisovich (1865–1922) – Russian lawyer and political activist born in Vilnius. Named for his maternal grandfather. Married to RK. Later fathered three children with LL.

Goldovsky, Rosa Onissimovna – Mother of OG who was divorced from her husband when OG was five years old.

Goldovsky, Yuri Onissimovich (1907–1931) – First child of OG and LL.

Gomberg, Abraham “Robert” (1912–1972) – Violinist and oldest child of Mary Gomberg.  LL’s student at the Curtis Institute of Music who joined the Philadelphia Orchestra and became the breadwinner for the family for a time.

Gorky, Maxim (1868–1936) – Popular Russian and Soviet writer who discussed a possible writing project about Jews with OG.  Later, his mysterious death prompted the trial and execution of the physician Lev Grigorievich Levin where Nikolai Shereshevsky served as an expert witness.

Gould, Glenn (1932–1982) – Celebrated Canadian pianist noted especially for his interpretations of Bach and his recordings.

Goussev, Misha (1968– ) – Stepson of Dmitri Goldovsky and son of Tatyana Goussev who emigrated to the United States and lived with IGW and Billy Wolf for a time.

Gluck, Alma (1844–1938) – Opera singer who was the first wife of Efrem Zimbalist.

Goussev, Tatyana (148– ) – Second wife of LL’s oldest grandson, Dmitri Goldovsky (Yuri’s son).

Graham, Loren (1933– ) – American historian with specialized knowledge of science in Russia and the Soviet Union.

Grieg, Edvard (1843–1907) – Norwegian composer and pianist of the Romantic era.

Grün, Jacob (1837–1916) – Violinist who was a colleague of Joseph Joachim and the teacher of Carl Flesch, Franz Kneisel, and other leading performers.

Grzhimali, Ivan Voitsekhovich – See Hřímalý, Jan.

Guadagnini, Giovanni Battista (1711–1786) – One of the greatest of Italian luthiers. Anna Luboshutz played one of his cellos.

Gurkov, Solomon Izrailevich – See Hurok, Sol.


Hals, Frans (1582–1666) – Dutch Golden Age portrait painter.

Handel, George Frideric (1685–1759) – Baroque composer whose music was part of LL’s repertoire.

Heifetz, Jascha (1901–1987) – Lithuanian-born violinist considered one of the greatest violinist of the 20th century if not all time.  Friend of LL and the Wolf family.

Herzen, Alexander (1812–1870) – Russian writer who promulgated a vision of the peasant as the embodiment of integrity, freedom, and morality.

Hess, Myra (1890–1965) – Distinguished pianist who appeared on the same program with LL and Josef Hofmann aboard the S.S. Majestic on May 6, 1925.

Hilger, Elsa (1904–2005) – Assistant principal cellist of the Philadelphia Orchestra and one of the three musicians in the first ever all female ensemble of soloists with LL and Edith Evans Braun in the Beethoven Triple Concerto with the Philadelphia Orchestra.

Hilger, Gustav (1886–1965) – German diplomat who smuggled IGW out of Russia posing as her father. At the time, he was Delegate-General of the Red Cross and a Nansen Representative in Moscow.

Hill, Alfred Ebsworth (1862–1940) – One of four sons of William Ebsworth Hill, and part of the famous family associated with W. E. Hill & Sons, a London firm with a world-wide reputation for excellence in the repairs, authentication, identification, and making of violins, bows, and other string instruments. Hill authenticated LL’s Stradivarius and was someone to whom she entrusted it for repair.

Hillel (also called Hillel HaGadol or Hillel the Elder) (110 BC–10AD) – Jewish sage and scholar associated with the development of the Talmud.  The Russian writer Gorky claimed that Hillel had a profound influence on his thinking as a young man.

Hofmann, Elizabeth (“Betty”) Short (1906–1971) – Second wife of Josef Hofmann. Her pregnancy by him as a teenager caused a scandal in many circles. Considered herself a close friend of LL’s.

Hofmann, Josef Kazimierz (1876–1957) – Polish-American pianist who became Director of the Curtis Institute and toured with LL. The two quite possibly were lovers at the time.

Horowitz, Vladimir (1903–1989) – American classical pianist and composer born in Russia. He was acclaimed for his virtuoso technique, his tone color, and the excitement engendered by his playing. He is recognized as one of the greatest pianists of all time.

Hřímalý, Jan [Grzhimali, Ivan Voitsekhovich] (1844–1915) – Czech-born violinist and teacher of LL at the Moscow Conservatory where he was a professor from 1869 to 1915.

Huberman, Bronisław (1882–1947) – Polish violinist who was particularly known for his unique interpretations of great works of the repertory based on his individualistic analyses of the scores of these pieces.

Huntington, Henry (1850–1920) – American railroad magnate and collector of art and rare books. Huntington Library, Art Collection, and Botanic Gardens was established by Huntington and houses his collections.

Hurok, Sol [Solomon Izrailevich Gurkov] (1888–1974) – Russian-born American impresario who managed LL, Luboshutz & Nemenoff, and many other well-known classical music performers.


Igumnov, Konstantin (1873–1948) – Pianist and pedagogue who taught Pierre Luboshutz at the Moscow Conservatory.

Ippolitov-Ivanov, Mikhail (1859–1935) – Russian composer, conductor, and teacher.  Organized campaign to purchase Anna’s borrowed Guadagnini cello for her.

Ivanovskaya, Nadezhda Ivanovna “Nadenka” – Companion, friend and sometime servant of RK who lived with her and worked for her for many years, from before the Revolution of 1905 until after the Revolution of 1917.


Jacob, Marie (1875–1943) – Mother of Genia Nemenoff and mother-in-law of Pierre Luboshutz.

Joachim, Joseph (1831–1907) – Hungarian violinist, conductor, composer, and teacher. A close collaborator of Johannes Brahms, he is widely regarded as one of the most significant violinists of the nineteenth century. Refused to teach LL.

Juon, Paul (1872–1940) – Russian-born composer whose music was in LL’s repertoire.


Kabalevsky, Dmitri (1904–1987) – Soviet composer who was the 1929 winner of the Gold Medal at the Moscow Conservatory.

Kaganovich, Lazar (1893–1991) – Soviet politician and administrator; primary associate of Joseph Stalin.

Katz, Mischa – See Katzman, Mischa.

Katzman, Agals – Wife of Rabbi Sergei Katzman.  Mother of Katherine (Gitel) Katzman Luboshutz and Mischa Katzman.  Grandmother of LL, Anna, and Pierre Luboshutz.

Katzman, Katherine – See Lubozhutz, Katherine.

Katzman, Mischa – Son of Sergei and Agals Katzman and younger brother of Katherine Katzman Luboshutz (Gitel). He learned the piano business from his sister and opened his own shop once he settled in San Francisco.  In America, he changed his surname to Katz.

Katzman, Sergei – Odessa-based rabbi, father of Katherine Katzman Luboshutz and Mischa Katzman. Grandfather of LL, Anna, and Pierre Luboshutz.

Khegglin, Joseph (?–1931) – Swiss mountain climber who perished with Yuri Goldovsky.

Keneman, Feodor (1873–1937) – Pianist, composer and Gold Medal winner at the Moscow Conservatory who was the frequent accompanist of the Russian bass, Chaliapin.

Kent, Atwater (1873–1949) – American inventor and prominent radio manufacturer based in Philadelphia. Sponsored an appearance of LL and Joseph Hofmann on the prestigious Atwater Kent Radio Hour in 1926.

Khachaturian, Aram (1903–1978) – Georgian-born Soviet composer who received the Gold Medal of the Moscow Conservatory in 1934.

Khin, Klara Mironovna – Estranged sister of RK.

Khin, Mark Mironovich – Brother of RK.  Mark shared an apartment with OG prior to OG’s marriage to RK and was sympathetic to the marriage in the face of criticism from other members of the family.

Khin, Rashel Mironovna[2] (1863[3]–1928) – Wife of OG. Author of successful novellas, stories, and plays, as well as translations into Russian of the works of George Sand, Emile Zola, and other French authors.

Khrushchev, Nikita (1894–1971) – Soviet Premier from 1958–1964. Denounced the Doctor’s Plot after Stalin’s death leading to the freeing of Nikolai Shereshevsky.

Kincaid, William (1895–1967) – Curtis faculty member, the principal flutist of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Teacher of Thomas Wolf.

Kneisel, Franz (1865–1926) – Violinist who served as concertmaster in Berlin and Boston, formed the first touring American string quartet ensemble and turned his summer vacation home into an instructional mecca for string players in Blue Hill, Maine in 1902.

Kochański, Paweł (later known as Paul Kochanski) (1887–1934) – Odessa-born violinist who, like LL, initially studied there with Emil Młynarski; Pierre Luboshutz was his frequent accompanist.

Koni, Anatoli Fedorovich (1844–1927) – Liberal jurist, senator, writer. Longtime intimate of RK and family friend and associate of OG’s mentor Prince Aleksandr Urusov.

Konradi, Evgeniia Ivanovna (1838–1898) – Russian female writer, translator and social activist who emigrated to Paris and was part of RK’s cultural circle there.

Konstantinovich, Grand Duke (Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich) (1858–1915) – Grandson of Tsar Nicolas I of Russia; poet and playwright; honorary president of Moscow Conservatory when LL attended.

Koussevitzky, Nadezhda Galat – First wife of Serge Koussevitzky. OG arranged their divorce when others had been unable to do so.

Koussevitzky, Natalie Ushkov (?–1942) – Second wife of Serge Koussevitzky, daughter of a wealthy Russian tea merchant. Upon her death, Koussevitzky created the Koussevitzky Music Foundation in her honor.

Koussevitzky, Serge Alexandrovich (1874–1951) – Russian double bass player and impresario who in 1924 moved to the United States and became music director and conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Engaged members of the Luboshutz and Goldovsky families in his many musical endeavors.

Kovalevsky, Maksim (1851–1916) – A popular professor of OG’s at Moscow University. He lost his job there on account of his liberal views and settled in Paris where he established a “Grand Orient de France” Masonic Lodge.  He returned to Russia and was elected to the first Duma.

Kreisler, Fritz (1875–1962) – Austrian-born violinist and composer who gave Pierre Luboshutz permission to arrange some of his music for two pianos.

Krestovnikov, Grigory Aleksandrovich (1855–?) – Textile magnate who held many important positions in finance such as chairman of the board of the Moscow Merchants’ Bank. A neighbor and friend of LL and OG at their country house. Emigrated from Russia after the 1917 Revolution.

Kreutzer, Leonid (1884–1953) – Russian-born pianist who was an important teacher at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (Conservatory). He took on BG as a student and conducted the orchestra for BG and LL’s first Berlin concerto concert there. Also briefly LL’s lover.

Kubelik, Jan (1880–1940) – Czech violinist and composer.

Kuzin, Svetlana “Sveta” (1962– ) – Great-granddaughter of Anna Luboshutz and Nikolai Shereshevsky. Primary Russia-based researcher for this book.


Lang, George M. – Newspaper journalist with the Philadelphia Record.

Lateiner, Isidor (1930–2005) – Cuban-American violinist; student of LL.

Latinsky (first name unknown) – The name of the pianist who accompanied LL in her concert at the Palais Garnier in Paris on July 9, 1924 with Feodor Chaliapin where she first met the impresario, Sol Hurok.

Le Bourne, Fernand (1862–1929) – French composer whose music was in LL’s repertoire.

Lenin, Vladimir (1870–1924) – Communist revolutionary and first head of Soviet state.

Leschetizky, Theodore (1830–1915) – Polish pianist, composer, and professor who was the teacher of Artur Schnabel who in turn taught BG.

Levin, S. S. (1906–1931) – Fellow faculty member with Yuri Goldovsky at Bauman Moscow State Technical University who died with Yuri in a mountaineering accident.

Levy, Natalya Vatslavovna – See Goldovsky, Natalya Levy.

Lhevinne, Josef (1874–1944) – Russian pianist who along with LL and his wife Rosina was a Gold Medal winner at the Moscow Conservatory and a member of the Maine summer music colony in the 1930s.

Lhevinne, Rosina (1880–1976) – Russian pianist and pedagogue married to pianist Josef Lhevinne and most famous for her distinguished students at the Juilliard School including Van Cliburn.  A member of the Maine summer music community in the 1930s.

Lieberman, Helen “Mrs. Moses” – A music lover and part of the same Jewish social circle as the Wolfs who interceded with IGW’s family to admit Billy Wolf and allow him to date IGW.

Liebling, Leonard (1880–1945) – American pianist and editor.

Lindenlaub, Theodore (1854–1929) – Music critic who reviewed LL’s performance of Prokofiev’s first violin concerto in Paris in the October 15, 1925 issue of Le Temps. The concert took place on October 11.

Liszt, Cosima (Cosima Wagner) (1837–1929) – Daughter of Franz Liszt, to whom César Franck originally intended to give his violin sonata upon her first marriage to Hans von Bulow.

Liszt, Franz (1811–1886) – Hungarian composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher. Father of Cosima Liszt (later Cosima Wagner).

Litvinov, Maxim (1876–1951) – Russian revolutionary and prominent Soviet diplomat.

Loeb, August B. (1841–1915) – President of Philadelphia’s Tradesmen’s National Bank, a position he bequeathed to his son, Howard. Father of Minnie Loeb Wolf and grandfather of Billy Wolf.

Loeb, Emma (Mrs. Arthur) (1879–1976) – Billy Wolf’s cousin. A member of the Philadelphia Orchestra Ladies Committee, she served as matchmaker for Billy Wolf and IGW after one of LL’s concerts with the Orchestra.

Loeb, Howard (1873–1955) – Succeeded his father, August B. Loeb, as President of Tradesmen’s National Bank.  Sister of Minnie Wolf and Uncle to Billy Wolf.

Loeb, Mathilde Adler (1848–1875) – Mother of Howard and Minnie Loeb.

Loeb, Minnie – See Wolf, Minnie Loeb.

Lopatnikoff, Nikolai (1903–1976) – Russian composer whose violin concerto LL introduced at a concert at the Curtis Institute of Music and then at her final concert with the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1945.

Lopukhin, Aleksei Alexandrovich (1813–1927) – Friend, fellow law student, and business associate of OG. Head of Russian police between 1903 and 1905.  Defendant in famous trial in which Goldovsky testified.

Lopukhin, Aleksei Alexandrovich (1864–1928) – Russian entrepreneur, railway speculator, and client of OG.

Lowe, Charles (1848–1931) – Author and foreign sub-editor of the London Times; served as Times correspondent to Berlin 1978–1891.

Luboshutz, Anna (1887–1975) – LL’s younger sister, an accomplished cellist who married the physician Nikolai Shereshevsky and made her home in Russia all of her life.

Luboshutz, Elena Mikhailovna – Pierre Luboshutz’s first wife who left Russia and travelled with him to Berlin and Paris. Maiden name unknown.

Luboshutz, Katherine “Gitel” Katzman [later called “Babushka”] (1865–1940) – Daughter of Rabbi Sergei Katzman, wife of Saul Luboshutz, mother of LL, Anna Luboshutz, and Pierre Luboshutz. She ran a piano store in Odessa and supported her family there. Eventually joined the family in the United States.

Luboshutz, Lea (1885–1965) – Odessa-born daughter of Katherine Katzman and Saul Luboshutz. Sister of Anna and Pierre. Mother of Yuri, Boris, and Irina Goldovsky. Concert violinist who emigrated to the United States where she joined the faculty of the Curtis Institute of Music.

Luboshutz, Pierre (1890–1971) – Son of Katherine Katzman and Saul Luboshutz, brother of LL and Anna Luboshutz, a pianist and with his wife Genia Nemenoff, half of the famed piano duo team of Luboshutz & Nemenoff.

Luboshutz, Saul (?–1925) – Violin teacher; father of LL, Anna Luboshutz, and Pierre Luboshutz; husband of Katherine Katzman; first teacher of LL.

Lunacharsky, Anatoly Vasilyevich (1875–1933) – Russian Marxist revolutionary and the first Bolshevik Soviet People’s Commissar.  Granted the Shereshevskys’ permission to continue to occupy their entire large apartment after the 1917 Revolution.

Lvov, Prince Georgy (1861–1925) – Russian statesman and the first post-imperial prime minister of Russia, from 15 March to 21 July 1917.

Lyapunov, Sergei (1859–1924) – Russian pianist and composer whose piano concerto BG played as teenager in his first concert in Berlin.


Maklakov, Vasily Alekseevich (1869–1957) – Russian trial lawyer and one of the organizers of the 1904 Zemstvo conference who may have invited OG to help with the drafting of the conference Resolution. A fellow Mason and a leader of the Constitutional Democratic Party (Kadets).

Malan, Roy (1945– ) – Violinist who wrote the definitive biography of his teacher, Efrem Zimbalist. Graduated from the Curtis Institute of Music and performed frequently with Andrew and Thomas Wolf.

Marcovitz, Dr. Eli (1906–1982) – Psychiatrist who treated IGW. An amateur musician who owned a Stradivarius violin.

Markovich, Boris – Friend of Yuri Goldovsky.

Marcovitz, Dr. Eli (1906–1982) – Psychiatrist who treated IGW. An amateur musician who owned a Stradivarius violin.

Maróczy, Géza (1870–1951) – A Hungarian chess Grand Master, against whom BG played a winning game in Budapest, temporarily earning his teacher Dohnanyi’s ire.

Martin, Linton (1887–1954) – Music and Drama editor for the Philadelphia Inquirer for three decades who wrote a November 3, 1945 review of LL’s final concert with the Philadelphia Orchestra.

Martinů, Bohuslav (1890-1959) – Czech composer who wrote a concerto for two pianos and orchestra for Luboshutz & Nemenoff.

Matisse, Henri (1869–1954) – French draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, and painter.

Maupassant, Guy de (1850–1893) – French writer especially of short stories whose works were translated into Russian by RK.

McPherson, Aimee Semple (1890–1944) – Pentecostal evangelist and media celebrity whose cottage in Carmel, California LL briefly rented during the summer of 1929.

Mendelssohn, Felix (1809–1847) – German composer, pianist, organist, and conductor. His violin concerto was premiered by Joseph Joachim.

Menotti, Gian-Carlo (1911–2007) – Pulitzer-prize winning Italian American composer who studied at the Curtis Institute of Music.

Mickley, Karl (ca. 1876–1939) – Blacksmith and mechanic from Swinemunde, Poland who was brought to the United States by Josef Hofmann where he assisted the great pianist on many of his mechanical inventions.

Mikhailovna, Elena – See Lubozhutz, Elena Mikhailovna.

Miliukov, Pavel Nikolaevich (1859–1943) – Russian historian and liberal politician. A founder prominent member of the Kadet party and a Mason in Paris’ Kosmos Lodge.

Milnes, Sherrill (1935 – ) – American operatic baritone most famous for his Verdi roles; performed under BG’s directorship.

Milstein, Nathan (1904–1992) – Esteemed Odessa-born violinist who enjoyed a long career and invited Andrew Wolf to play concerts with him after Wolf was serving in the same role for Isaac Stern.

Mintslov, Rudolf Rudolfovich (1845–1904) – OG’s mentor at a law firm he joined in 1888.

“Miss B” (actual name unknown) – IGW’s governess in Paris charged with teaching the child the most elegant English language as well as proper manners.

Mlynarski, Emil Szymon (1870–1935) – Russian-born violinist, conductor, composer, and pedagogue. A student of Leopold Auer, he was, after LL’s father, her first violin teacher for three years in Odessa. Later joined the Curtis Institute of Music faculty in Philadelphia where he taught BG conducting.

Moennig, William (1930–2004) – Fourth generation of violin makers and dealers based in Philadelphia who handled the sale of LL’s Stradivarius and her bows for BG.

Moore, Edward (1877–1935) – Music critic for the Chicago Daily Tribune who reviewed LL’s Chicago concert with Josef Hofmann which took place on November 27, 1927. The review appeared the day after the concert.

Morozov, Ivan Abramovich (1871–1921) – Russian businessman and major collector of French art.

Moskvin, Ivan (1874–1946) – Actor in Konstantin Stanislavsky’s celebrated Moscow Art Theatre and later Soviet film star. Enjoyed listening to BG practice and provided him with free tickets to the Art Theatre.

Moyse, Marcel (1889–1984) – French-born flutist who carried on the tradition of a pure French style of playing. Came to the United States after World War II.  One of Thomas Wolf’s teachers.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756–1791) – Austrian composer of the Classical era. His opera “The Magic Flute” was influenced by Freemasonry.  His violin and piano sonatas were a regular part of the Luboshutz/Goldovsky/Wolf family repertoire.

Murillo, Bartolome Esteban (1618–1682) – Spanish Baroque painter.

Muromtsev, Sergei (1850–1910) – Russian lawyer and politician, an expert in Roman law. A favorite professor of OG but forced off the faculty at Moscow University during the repression.  Later Chairman of First Imperial Duma (1906).

Mussorgsky, Modest (1839–1881) – Russian composer, one of the group known as “The Five.” He was an innovator of Russian music in the romantic period.


Nadezhdina, Nadeshda Sergeevna (1908–1979) – Soviet dancer and choreographer and Artistic Director of the Beryozka Russian Dance Company from Moscow who carried a photograph from LL to her sister Anna in the 1960s.

Nardini, Pietro (1722–1793) – Italian composer whose music was in LL’s concert repertoire.

Naumburg, Aaron (1859–1928) – Wealthy art collector and music lover who provided the funds for LL to purchase her Stradivarius violin.

Naumburg, Nettie Goldsmith (1865–1930) – Wife of Aaron Naumburg who was a patron of LL.  She gave the Naumburgs’ great art collection and contents of their apartment to Harvard University’s Fogg Museum.

Naumov, Vladimir P. (1925– ) – Russian historian with expertise concerning Stalin’s so-called “Doctors’ Plot” in Soviet Russia that entrapped Nikolai Shereshevsky.

Nemenoff, Aaron (1870–1943) – Russian-born father of Genia Nemenoff (Pierre Luboshutz’s wife and duo-piano partner).  Established Paris salon of his in-law’s fur business after his marriage to Marie Jacob. Was killed in the gas chambers of Auschwitz.

Nemenoff, Genia (1905–1989) – Pianist, French-born daughter of a Russian family, the Jacobs, that had settled in Paris to establish a branch of the family fur business. Genia later married and became the performing partner of pianist Pierre Luboshutz.

Nemenoff, Salomon (Mounia) (1899–1946) – Older brother of Genia Nemenoff.  His serious illness kept his parents in Paris after their return from America in 1938 despite Genia’s efforts to bring them to safety in the United States.  His parents were later rounded up by the Nazis and sent to their deaths.

Neuer, Berthold (1881–1938) – Artist Representative for the Knabe Piano Company and Vice President and General Manager of Aeolian American Corporation.

Nikisch, Arthur (1855–1922) – Hungarian conductor with whom LL made several appearances on her first European tour in 1903.


Oistrakh, David (1908–1974) – Prominent Russian violinist during the Soviet era. Toured the United States where he met LL, personally thanked her for the donation of a violin when he came to U.S. in 1955, and spoke to her about her sister Anna.

Olsufiev, Dmitri Adamovich (1862–1937) – Russian count and public figure who shared a private evening with OG, RK, Nikolai Ilyich Storozhenko, and Lev Tolstoy.

Ormandy, Eugene (1899–1985) – Hungarian-born conductor and violinist who led the Philadelphia Orchestra for 44 years and with whom LL, Pierre, and Genia appeared regularly.

Ozawa, Seiji (1935– ) – Conductor and long-time Music Director of Boston Symphony Orchestra (1973–2002).


Paganini, Niccolò (1782–1840) – Italian virtuoso violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer.

Paley, William (1901–1990) – Chief executive who built the Columbia Broadcasting System from a small radio network into one of the foremost radio and television network operations in the United States.

Pasternak, Boris (1890–1960) – Russian poet, novelist, and literary translator. Author of Doctor Zhivago.

Pasternak, Leonid (1862–1945) – Russian Jewish post-Impressionist painter who contributed to the publication “HELP!” in 1901 to assist indigent Jews.  Later may have painted OG’s portrait.  Father of the author Boris Pastnernak.

Pasternak, Rosa Isidorovna Kaufman (1868–1939) – Odessa-born pianist who briefly joined a trio with LL and Anna Luboshutz.  Wife of Leonid Pasternak and mother of Boris Pasternak.

Pertsov, Pyotr Nikolaevich (1857–1937) – Wealthy railroad engineer and patron of the arts with whom OG did business.

Piatigorsky, Gregor (1903–1976) – Russian-born cellist with whom Pierre Luboshutz made his first American tour. A faculty member at both the Curtis Institute of Music and Tanglewood, he spent several summers at the Curtis music colony in Rockport, Maine along with Pierre and LL.

Picasso, Pablo (1881–1973) – Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet, and playwright who spent most of his life in France.

Pipes, Richard (1923–2018) – Polish American academic who specialized in Russian history, particularly with respect to the Soviet Union, and who espoused a strong anti-communist point of view throughout his career.

Plehve, Vyacheslav Konstantinovich von (1846–1904) – Director of Imperial Russia’s police and later Minister of the Interior.  Assassinated in 1904 while Lopukhin was chief of police.

Plekhanov, Georgi (1856–1918) – Russian revolutionary and Marxist socialist. Studied at the L’Ecole de Hautes Etudes in Paris, an incubator for a Masonic movement in Russia.

Pobedonostsev, Konstantin (1827–1907) – Alexander III’s closest advisor and Procurator of the Holy Synod. Mastermind of anti-Semitic persecutions.

Polyakov, Lazar Solomonovich (1843–1914) – Russian entrepreneur and banker. His Moscow villa with the small chapel that his devout Orthodox Jewish wife, Rozalia, used regularly is now the Bolshaya Bronnaya Synagogue. Was one of LL’s earliest patrons and gave her an Amati violin.

Polyakov, Rozalia – Wife of Lazar Polyakov and an extremely devout Jew.  Became attached to LL and wanted to be “her protector.”  

Polyakov, Samuel (1837–1888) – “The Russian railroad king” who had business interests throughout the Ukraine and at one time was probably the richest Jew in Moscow. He and LL’s patron, Lazar Polyakov, were brothers.

Popova, Aleksandra Petrovna – Daughter of a Christian clergyman; an object of OG’s affection during the summer of 1886 spent with his friend Rozanov.

Potemkin, Vladimir Petrovich (1874–1946) – Russian scholar with an interest in Jewish history and philosophy.  Spearheaded a publication “HELP!” to benefit Jews in 1901 with the assistance of OG and RK.  Later, Potemkin became a Soviet statesman and diplomat.

Preobrajenska, Olga [also sometimes rendered in English as Preobrazhenskaya] (1871–1962) – Internationally known Russian ballerina of the Russian Imperial Ballet and a noted ballet instructor who briefly taught IGW in Paris.

Prince, Leonard (1893–1915) – Son and only child of Sidney and Therese Prince who died of pneumonia at age 21 while a student at Williams College.

Prince, Lionel David (1887–1942) – Physician and LL’s “gentleman friend” in California in the late 1920s and early 1930s.

Prince, Sidney (1865–1929) – Partner in Asiel & Co., a financial services firm, and for ten years a member of the New York Stock Exchange Governing Committee. Patron of LL and BG who made possible the latter’s studies with Dohnanyi in Budapest.

Prince, Therese “Tessie” Heilner (1867– ?) – Wife of Sidney Prince who was a fine amateur pianist.  With her husband, supported the careers of many musicians including LL and BG.

Prokofiev, Sergei Sergeyevich (1891–1953) – Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. LL premiered his first violin concerto in New York.

Proust, Marcel (1871–1922) – French novelist, critic, and essayist.

Pugachevich, Nadezhda Shereshevsky (1915–1998) – Teacher of English, Daughter of Nikolai Shereshevsky and Anna Luboshutz.

Pugachevich, Nina Petrovna – See Yuriev, Nina Pugachevich.

Pugachevich, Vladimir (1947– ) – Grandson of Anna Luboshutz and Nikolai Shereshevsky and son of Nadezhda Pugachevich. The author visited him at the family dacha in 2014.

Pushkin, Alexander (1799–1837) – Russian author considered by many to be the country’s greatest poet. Many of his works were turned into operas.


Quintilianus, Markus Fabius (c.35–100 CE) – Roman theoretician and scholar of rhetoric from Hispania who OG’s mentor, Rudolf Rudolfovich Mintslov, suggested he read as part of his education.


Rachmaninoff, Sergei (1873–1943) – Russian pianist and composer.  Winner of the Gold Medal at the Moscow Conservatory in 1892.

Rahv, Philip (1908–1973) – American literary critic and essayist. Co-founder of literary periodical Partisan Review.

Rameau, Jean-Philipe (1683-1764) – French composer and music theorist of the Baroque era.

Rasputin, Grigory (1889–1916) – Widely-hated mystical monk who dominated Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, and the Imperial Family.

Ravel, Maurice (1875–1937) – French composer and LL’s neighbor in the French vacation town of St. Jean de Luz.

Reagan, Ronald (1911–2004) – President of the United States who hosted a state dinner in 1984 at which Andrew Wolf played with Isaac Stern.

Reiner, Fritz (1888–1963) – Hungarian born conductor who led various American orchestras and who taught BG at the Curtis Institute of Music.  Reiner also employed BG in 1934 as his assistant at the short-lived Philadelphia Grand Opera Company.

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606–1669) – Dutch painter and etcher.

Richter, Sviatoslav (1915–1997) – Soviet pianist who was winner of the 1947 Gold Medal at the Moscow Conservatory.

Rigert, Katya – Latvian governess of the children of LL and OG in Russia who tutored them in German.

Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai (1844–1908) – Russian composer and a member of the group of composers known as The Five. He was a master of orchestration.

Rode, Jacques Pierre Joseph (1774–1830) – French violinist and composer whose music was in LL’s repertoire.

Roosevelt, Franklin (1882–1945) – American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States.

Rose, Leonard (1918–1984) – American cellist who enjoyed a major career as soloist, chamber music player, and pedagogue.  Rose hired Andrew Wolf to become his pianist and later paved the way for him to become pianist for the violinist Isaac Stern.

Rosenbach, Abraham Simon Wolf (1876–1952) – A Wolf relative who was among the foremost dealers in antiquarian books and manuscripts in the United States.

Rosenberg, James Naumberg (1874–1970) – Nephew of Aaron and Nettie Naumburg who spoke at Nettie’s funeral and who notified LL that the Stradivarius violin from the Naumbergs was hers.

Rosenwald, Julius “Dooley” II (1914–2003) – Grandson of the scion of the Sears Roebuck fortune and part of Billy Wolf’s group of Jewish friends and contemporaries. Later attended school with IGW after she arrived in the United State and before her marriage to Billy Wolf.

Rostropovich, Mstislav (1927–2007) – Russian cellist who became a friend of Anna Luboshutz, presiding over her 80th birthday celebration.  A 1946 winner of the Gold Medal at the Moscow Conservatory, he moved to the United States in 1974 and became conductor of the National Symphony.

Rothstein, Edward (1952– ) – American music critic who wrote for the New York Times and covered BG’s final opera performance.

Rozanov, Vasily Vasilievich (1856–1919) – Philosopher, friend, and major influence on the young OG. Husband of writer Polina Suslova. Later in life, their friendship ended over Rozanov’s anti-Semitism.

Rubens, Peter Paul (1577–1640) – Flemish Baroque painter.

Rubinstein, Aniela (Nela) Mlynarski (1908–2001) – Daughter of Emil Mlynarski (Lea’s violin teacher) and wife of pianist Arthur Rubinstein.

Rubinstein, Anton (1829–1894) – Russian pianist, composer, and conductor and founder of the St. Petersburg Conservatory of Music. Brother of Nikolai.

Rubinstein, Arthur (1887–1982) – Polish pianist, generally considered one of the most important of the 20th century.  Was the son-in-law of Emil Mlynarski (Lea’s violin teacher).

Rubinstein, Nikolai (1835–1881) – Russian pianist, conductor, and composer; co-founder with Prince Nikolai Petrovitch Troubetzkoy of the Moscow Conservatory. Brother of Anton.

Rückert, Feodor (1840–1917) – Russian silver- and goldsmith of German origin.  Worked for Fabergé as well as independently for some clients including LL who commissioned a tea glass holder for OG.

Rumanov, Arkady Veniaminovich (1876–1942) – Distinguished St. Petersburg journalist who followed LL’s career and those of her siblings and with whom LL corresponded when she was on tour.

Ryumin, Mikhail (1913–1954) – Deputy Head of the Soviet MGB (Ministry of State Security) who engineered the “Doctors’ Plot” in 1952–53.


Sachs, Erich (1882–1948) – Junior partner in the Wolff & Sachs concert agency in Berlin that represented LL and BG for a brief time.

Safonov, Vasily Ilyich (1852–1918) – Russian pianist, teacher, conductor, and composer. Director of the Moscow Conservatory during the years that the Luboshutz children were students.

Saint-Saëns, Camille (1835–1921) – French composer, organist, conductor, and pianist of the Romantic era.

Salmond, Felix (1888–1952) – English cellist, member of the Curtis Institute of Music faculty who spent summers in Rockport, Maine and with LL, was a member of one of the early Curtis String Quartets.

Salzedo, Carlos (1885–1961) – French harpist, pianist, composer and conductor. He influenced many composers with his new ideas for the harp's sounds through his work with the International Composers' Guild. His many harp students performed in prominent orchestras. 

Samuelson, Semeon Vasilyevich (1872–1951) – Russian pianist (pupil of the great pedagogue Nikolai Sergeyevich Zverev) and a Luboshutz accompanist.

Sand, George (1804–1876) – French novelist and memoirist whose works were translated into Russian by RK.

Sarasate, Pablo de (1844–1908) – Spanish violinist who LL heard in Odessa at a very young age.

Frau Schlesinger – Wife of German Consul General who assisted LL when she arrived in Berlin.

Schlesinger, Moritz (1886–1974) – German Consul General and friend of OG who assisted LL in her efforts to get IGW out of Russia after OG’s death. 

Schloss, Edwin – Music critic for the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin who wrote an enthusiastic review of LL’s final concerts with the Philadelphia Orchestra on November 3, 1945.

Schnabel, Artur (1882–1951) – Austrian pianist considered one of the greatest of all Beethoven interpreters and one of the most important pedagogues of his time who became BG’s teacher in Berlin.

Schneider, Alexander (1908–1993) – Violinist, conductor, and educator who led Andrew Wolf’s first performance at Carnegie Hall on December 24, 1963.

Schonberg, Harold C. (1915–2003) – Pulitzer Prize-winning music critic of the New York Times who reviewed musical performances of the Luboshutz family and who wrote extensively about pianists, including Josef Hofmann.

Schubert, Franz (1879–1928) – Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras. Despite his short lifetime, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, including more than 600 secular vocal works, seven complete symphonies, sacred music, operas, incidental music, and a large body of piano and chamber music.

Schumann, Robert (1810–1856) – German composer and influential music critic of the Romantic era.

Scriabin, Alexander (1872–1915) – Russian composer and pianist who accompanied LL on her first tour of the United States.

Seltzer, Ruth (1917–1986) – Society columnist for various Philadelphia papers who covered LL frequently.

Serkin, Rudolf (1903–1991) – Czech-born pianist, cofounder of the Marlboro Music Festival in Vermont, director of the Curtis Institute of Music, and teacher of Andrew Wolf.

Serov, Valentin (1865–1911) – Russian painter especially known for his portraits. Teacher of Mikhail Shemyakin who painted portraits of LL and her sister Anna.

Shchukin, Sergei Ivanovich (1854–1936) – Russian merchant and collector of Impressionist and post-Impressionist art who hosted the evening when Lea Luboshutz met Onissim Goldovsky.

Shedo-Ferroti, D.K. (?–1872) – Pseudonym for conservative propagandist Baron Firks. One of his diatribes produced a response from Alexander Herzen and this latter banned document was found in OG’s apartment and contributed to his arrest.

Shemyakin, Mikhail (1875–1944) – Russian impressionist painter from the first half of the 20th century. Studied under Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. OG commissioned him to paint a six-foot tall portrait of LL.

Shereshevsky, Anna Luboshutz – See Lubozhutz, Anna.

Shereshevsky, Nadezhda – See Pugachevich, Nadezhda Shereshevsky.

Shereshevsky, Nikolai Adolfovich (1885–1961) – Prominent physician and researcher who married Anna Luboshutz in 1913. A victim in the so-called “Doctors’ Plot,” Stalin’s attempted effort to falsely accuse Jewish doctors of illegal activities, he was later exonerated.

Shereshevsky, Sergei (1915–1935) – Son of Nikolai Shereshevsky and Anna Luboshutz. Twin brother of Nadezhda Pugachevich.

Shipov, Dmitri (1851–1920) – Organizer of 1904 Zemstvo conference.  A liberal who shared OG’s views, he was elected member of the State Council by Moscow zemstvo (1907–1909). Imprisoned by the Bolsheviks where he died three years after the Revolution of 1917.

Shirley, George (1934– ) – American tenor who sang for BG’s company and was the first African American tenor to sing a leading role at the Metropolitan Opera.

Short, Elizabeth (“Betty”) – See Hofmann, Elizabeth “Betty” Short.

Shostakovich, Dmitri (1906–1975) – Russian composer and pianist.

Siegl, Henry (1911–1997) – Violin student of LL at the Curtis Institute of Music and long-time concertmaster of the Seattle Symphony.

Silber, Sidney (1881–1959) – American pianist, pedagogue, and writer of material on piano playing who was a close friend of Josef Hofmann.

Silverstein, Joseph “Joey” (1932–2015) – American violinist and conductor who served as concertmaster of the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1962 to 1984. Performed with Andrew Wolf in the latter’s final concert.

Simon, Antoine (1850–1916) – French composer who spent most of his career in Russia. His music was part of LL’s repertoire.

Sinatra, Frank (1915–1998) – Popular American singer and actor.  The source of a LL’s “Franck Sonata” Boston media malapropism.

Skagen, Olav (1961– ) – Genealogist for the Skagen family in the United States. The married name of Yvonne Doguereau, the woman who painted the portrait of Pierre Luboshutz ni Paris, was Skagen.

Major Smirnov – Senior Investigator for Major Crimes of the Ministry of Internal Affairs who stamped Shereshevky’s letter to the authorities.

Sobinov, Leonid Vitalyevich (1872 – 1934) – Russian operatic tenor.  Organized annual benefits in Moscow to support needy students in which the Luboshutz sisters participated.

Sokoloff, Eleanor (1914– ) – Piano pedagogue who was one of Andrew Wolf’s first teachers.  A student and later a faculty member at the Curtis Institute of Music.

Sokoloff, Vladimir (1913–1997) – Pianist who was both a student and later a faculty member at the Curtis Institute of Music.  He served as pianist for Efrem Zimbalist and many other musical stars.

Sokolovskii, Natalya – See Goldovsky, Natalya Levy.

Solovyov, Sergei Mikhailivich (1820–1879) – Russian historian whose magnum opus was the 29-volume History of Russia from the Earliest Times. He served as tutor to the future Tsar Alexander III  and was father of Vladimir and Vsevolod Solovyov, friends of OG and RK.

Solovyov, Vladimir Sergeyevich (1853–1900) – Russian philosopher and theologian who was friendly with OG and RK.  He was enthusiastic about their conversion to Christianity and was highly critical of the writer Lev Tolstoy and his anti-Semitisms.

Solovyov, Vsevolod Sergeyevich (1849–1903) – Russian historical novelist whose apartment appears to have been searched by police for illegal texts in 1903 according to a diary entry of RK.

Spear, Annie – In charge of housekeeping for the Curtis properties in Rockport, Maine during the period of the Curtis Institute’s Summer Music Colony there.

Stalin, Josef (1878–1953) – De factor leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until 1953.  Under his rule, millions were “purged” and lost their lives.  He was responsible for trumped up charges against Jewish doctors (including Nikolai Shereshevsky) in the so-called Doctors’ Plot.

Stanislavsky, Konstantin (1863–1938) – Russian actor and theater director; was quite influential for BG, who encountered his work for the first time as a young boy.

Stark, Ethel (1920–2012) – Canadian violinist and conductor and co-founder of Montreal Women’s Symphony Orchestra. Student of LL at Curtis.

Stravinsky, Igor (1882–1971) – Russian composer who lived in Paris and then the United States and composed such important works including the ballets “Firebird,” “Petrushka,” and “The Rite of Spring.”

Stern, Isaac (1920–2001) – Russian-born American violinist with whom Andrew Wolf collaborated and toured as assisting pianist for many years.

Stine, Elizabeth Emerson – Music critic for the Philadelphia Inquirer who wrote an enthusiastic review of LL’s final concerts with the Philadelphia Orchestra o November 3, 1945.

Stock, Frederick (1872–1942) – German conductor and composer, most famous for his 37-year tenure as music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. 

Stokowski, Leopold (1882–1977) – Internationally acclaimed conductor who led the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1912 to 1936 and advised Mary Louise Curtis Bok on the establishment of the Curtis Institute of Music where he led the student orchestra.

Stolyarsky, Pyotr Solomonovich (1871–1944) – Soviet violinist and eminent pedagogue, honored as People's Artist of USSR. Praised the Luboshutz Trio.

Stone, Enid Weisz (1931–2016) – Member of the Naumburg family who was also close to the Wolf family.

Storozhenko, Nikolai Ilyich (1836–1906) – An important literary critic and one of the first Russian Shakespeare scholars who was one of OG’s professors.  He remained a close confidante of OG and RK and invited them to spend an evening with Lev Tolstoy.

Stradivari, Antonio (1644–1737) – One of the greatest violin makers of all time. LL owned and played his golden period instrument called “Le Rossignol,” or “The Nightingale.”

Strauss, Johann II (1825–1899) – Austrian composer of operettas and waltzes many of which Pierre Luboshutz arranged for two pianos.

Strauss, Levi (1829–1922) – German-American business man of German Jewish descent who founded (in San Francisco) the first company to manufacture blue jeans.

Sumbatov-Yuzhin – See Yuzhin, Alexandr Ivanovich.

Suslova, Polina [aka Apollinaria Prokofyevna Suslova] (1839–1918) – Wife of the philosopher Vasily Rozanov and former mistress of Fyodor Dostoevsky. She sent a letter to the authorities that resulted in OG’s arrest.

Sviatopolk-Mirsky, Pyotr (1857–1914) – Russian noble, politician, and police official who as a fairly liberal Interior Minister in 1904 decided not to persecute the participants in the national Zemstvo conference.

Szell, George (1897–1970) – Hungarian-born American conductor and composer, widely considered one of the twentieth century's greatest conductors.


Taneyev, Sergei (1856–1915) – Composer and pianist who played first performances of Tchaikovsky’s piano concerti.  Introduced OG to LL.

Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilyich (1840–1893) – Russia’s premiere classical composer, one of the first to be celebrated internationally.

Temianka, Henri (1906–1992)  – Violinist who came to the Curtis Institute of Music as a student of Carl Flesch in 1927 and recalled the early faculty string quartets at the Institute in his oral history. Later founded the Paganini Quartet.

Thibaud, Jacques (1880–1953) – French violinist and LL’s neighbor in the vacation town of St. Jean de Luz in France.

Thomon, Jean-François Thomas de (1760–1813) – French architect who designed the Odessa Opera House.

Tolstoy, Lev (1828–1910) – One of Russia’s most famous writers. An acquaintance of OG, who played piano for him. Author of “The Kreutzer Sonata.”

Tolstoy, Sofia Andreyevna (1844–1919) – Wife of Lev Tolstoy. Her relationship with Sergei Taneyev is thought to be the inspiration for Lev Tolstoy’s tale, “The Kreutzer Sonata.”

Toscanini, Arturo (1867–1957) – Italian conductor who fame was such that appearing as a soloist with him was a mark of distinction.  Pierre Luboshutz and Genia Nemenoff were the only duo-piano team to have done so.

Trotsky, Leon (1879–1940) – Marxist theorist who played a prominent role in the Russian Revolution. An early Soviet politician, he was expelled from the Communist Party in 1927 and assassinated on Stalin’s orders in Mexico.

Tully, Alice (1902–1993) – American singer and patron of the arts.

Turgenev, Ivan (1818–1883) – Russian writer; mentor of RK in Paris.

Tuton, Ira Wolf (1979– ) – Son of Lucy Wolf Tuton and a member of the band “Yeasayer.”


Urusov, Ekaterina (1868–1930) – Wife of OG’s friend and colleague, Aleksei Aleksandrovich Lopukhin, and cousin of OG’s legal mentor Aleksandr Urusov.

Urusov, Prince Aleksandr Ivanovich (1842–1900) – Distinguished Russian legal figure and the man most responsible for OG’s training in the law. OG’s recollections of him were published after Urusov’s death.

Urusov, Prince Sergei Dmitievich (1861–1937) – Elected member of the first Duma and a member of the Party of Democratic Reform.  Founder of the Masonic Lodge in Moscow sometime between 1906 and 1908.  Cousin of Aleksandr Urusov.

Ushkov, Natalie – See Koussevitzky, Natalie Ushkov.


Veiss, Dmitri (1880–1960) – Piano teacher of Anna Luboshutz at the Moscow Conservatory.

Vêque, Albert (1878–1965) – Renowned French architect of the building in Paris where LL lived with her family.

Verdi, Guiseppe (1813–1901) – Italian composer of opera.

Vieuxtemps, Henri (1820–1881) – Belgian violinist and composer. Teacher of Eugene Ysaÿe.

Vitachek, Evgenii Frantsevich (1880–1946) – Instrument master craftsman and instrument collector, so taken with Anna Luboshutz’s playing that he loaned her a beautiful Italian cello, a Guadagnini.

Vivaldi, Antonio (1678–1741) – Italian Baroque composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher, and cleric

Von Bülow, Hans (1830–1894) – German conductor, composer, and pianist of the Romantic era. First husband of Cosima Liszt for whom César Franck intended to write a violin sonata.


Wagner, Richard (1813–1883) – German composer, theater director, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas. Second husband of Cosima Liszt.

Walter, Bruno (1876–1982) – German-born musician especially well-known as a conductor but also a pianist and composer.

Weber, Carl Maria von (1786-1826) – German composer, conductor, guitarist, pianist, and critic of the Romantic era.

Wertheim, Georg (1857–1939) – German merchant and founder of the well-known Wertheim chain of department stores. Wertheim, friend and possible business associate of OG, became LL’s champion when she came to Berlin.

Widener, Harry Elkins (1885–1912) – American businessman and bibliophile; Harvard University’s Widener Library was named in his honor by his mother after his foundering on the RMS Titanic.

Witte, Sergei Yulyevich (1849–1915) – Russian policy-maker who, as Minister of Finance, encouraged extensive industrialization including railway development.

Wolf, Albert (1868–1931) – Billy Wolf’s father, president of Rodeph Shalom Synagogue, and a partner in the family business, Wolf Brothers.

Wolf, Alexandra – See Fogel, Alexandra Wolf.

Wolf, Alexis (1973– ) – Grandson of IGW and Billy Wolf. Son of Thomas and Dennie Palmer Wolf.

Wolf, Andrew (1943–1985) Billy Wolf and IGW’s fourth child, a Curtis graduate and pianist. Married to Linda Lunt Wolf and father of Anna and Heather.

Wolf, Ann (1933– ) – Widow of Billy Wolf’s nephew, Howard (1932-1981), who died of cancer three years before Andrew Wolf was stricken.

Wolf, Anna (1970– ) – Granddaughter of IGW and Billy Wolf. Daughter of Andrew and Linda Wolf.

Wolf, Catherine (1940– ) – Actress.  Billy Wolf and IGW’s third child.

Wolf, Dennie Palmer (1947– ) – Educator, wife of Thomas Wolf.

Wolf, Edwin II (1911–1991) – Librarian, bibliophile, author, historian, and civic leader in Philadelphia. Son of Morris Wolf and second cousin of Walter Wolf and author of the History of the Jews of Philadelphia.

Wolf, Heather (1973– ) – Russian speaking granddaughter of IGW and Billy Wolf.  Daughter of Andrew and Linda Wolf. One of the first to travel to Russia to meet the Russian branch of the family.

Wolf, Howard L. (“Howie”) (1932–1981) – First cousin of Andrew Wolf who pre-deceased him by four years.

Wolf, Irene Goldovsky [called Irina until she moved to the United States in 1929] (1917–2010) – Third child of OG and LL. Married Walter L. “Billy” Wolf in 1933.

Wolf, Lea (1970– ) – Oldest child of Thomas and Dennie Palmer Wolf. Named for her great grandmother, LL.

Wolf, Linda Lunt (1943– ) – Junior high school teacher and counselor.  Andrew Wolf’s wife.

Wolf, Minnie Loeb (1875–1946) – Mother of Billy Wolf, wife of Albert Wolf.  Her father, August Loeb, and brother, Howard Loeb, were successive Presidents of Philadelphia’s Tradesmens Bank.

Wolf, Morris (1883–1978) – Attorney who founded one of the largest Jewish law firms in America (Wolf, Block, Schorr, and Solis-Cohen) and one of the largest firms of any kind in Philadelphia. Father of Edwin Wolf II and first cousin to Billy Wolf.

Wolf, Nicholas (1938– ) – Writer and retired businessman. First-born and second child of IGW and Billy Wolf.

Wolf, Sasha Blair (2006– ) – Great-great-granddaughter of LL and granddaughter of Thomas Wolf who carried on the family tradition of performing in Carnegie Hall in 2016.

Wolf, Simon (1836–1923) – Prominent Jewish attorney with relationships with every U.S. President from Lincoln to Wilson. Active on the Union side in the Civil War. One of Billy Wolf’s ancestors.

Wolf, Thomas (1945– ) – Billy Wolf and IGW’s fifth child. A flutist, arts consultant, and this book’s author.  Married to Dennie Palmer Wolf and father of Lea and Alexis.

Wolf, Walter Loeb “Billy” (1908–2002) – Part of an important Philadelphia Jewish family. Married IGW and fathered six children: Alexandra, Nicholas, Catherine, Andrew, Thomas, and Lucy.

Wolff, Hermann (1845–1902) – Established a concert bureau in Berlin in 1880 that dominated the music market and represented important artists. The agency was continued by his wife after Wolff’s death.

Wolff, Louise – Leading impresario in Berlin who arranged concerts for many touring artists and for the Berlin Philharmonic and presented LL and BG in their first Berlin concert.

Wurlitzer, Rudolph Henry (1873–1948) – President of the Wurlitzer Company that specialized in musical instruments beginning in 1927.  A violinist with an interest in string instruments, he was the owner of the Stradivarius violin that Aaron Naumburg helped LL purchase.

Wyeth, N. C. (1882–1945) – American artist and illustrator.


Yagoda, Genrikh (1891–1938) – Soviet secret police official who served as director of the NKVD, the Soviet Union’s security and intelligence agency from 1934-36. Charged with the crimes of wrecking, espionage, Trotskyism, and conspiracy, Yagoda was a defendant at the Trial of the Twenty-One in 1937, was found guilty, and was shot.

Yeltsin, Boris (1931–2007) – Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

Ysaÿe, Eugène (1858–1931) – The violinist and pedagogue for whom César Franck wrote his violin and piano sonata. LL was selected to play for him at the Moscow Conservatory and he invited her to study with him in Belgium, where he coached her on the Franck sonata.

Ysaÿe, Madame Louise – See Bordeau de Coutrai, Louise.

Yuriev, Nina Pugachevich (1940– ) – Granddaughter of Anna Luboshutz and Nikolai Shereshevsky and daughter of Nadezhda Pugachevich. Physician, working in histology and autopsy.

Yushkevich, Semyon Solomonovich (1868–1927) – Jewish Russian fiction writer and playwright who would model the hero of one of his plays on OG. Lived for a time at Katino, RK’s estate.

Yutkevich, Natalya – See Goldovsky, Natalya Yutkevich.

Yuzhin, Alexandr Ivanovich [also known as Sumbatov-Yuzhin] (1857–1927) – Successful actor who took on the role of a senior theatre administrator associated with Moscow’s Malyi Theatre.  Friend of OG.


Zander, Benjamin (1939– ) – Conductor of the Boston Philharmonic with whom both BG and Andrew Wolf soloed.

Zavadskaya, Nina Petrovna (1925–1991) – Soviet Musicologist, member of the Union of Composers of the Soviet Union, and journalist who interviewed and wrote an extensive article about Anna Luboshutz in 1969.

Zetlin, Emanuel (1900–1983) – Second violinist in the first Curtis String Quartet in the 1920s. He was replaced by Edwin Bachmann in the ensemble with LL.

Zimbalist, Efrem (1890–1985) – Violinist who first met LL when they were concertmasters of their respective conservatory orchestras in Russia. Later, both taught at the Curtis Institute of Music, where he became director in 1941. Married first to the singer Alma Gluck, he later married Mary Curtis Bok.

Zimbalist, Efrem, Jr. (1918–2014) – Son of Efrem Zimbalist.  A famous actor who began his career as a musician, studying at the Curtis Institute of Music

Zimbalist, Stephanie (1956– ) – Granddaughter of Efrem Zimbalist.  An actress best known for her role on television’s Remington Steele.

Zola, Emil (1840–1902) – French writer translated into Russian by RK. Offered an essay to OG for one of the latter’s books.

Zubatov, Sergei (1864–1917) – Russian police administrator.

Russian Tsars & Tsaritsas

Russian tsars and tsaritsas mentioned in the text are listed in chronological order of their reigns

Tsar Peter I “the Great” (1672–1725). Reigned 1682–1725.

Tsaritsa Catherine II “the Great” (1729–1796). Reigned 1762–1796.

Tsar Paul (1754–1801). Reigned 1796–1801.

Tsar Alexander I (1777–1825). Reigned 1801–1825.

Tsar Nicholas I (1796–1855). Reigned 1825–1855.

Tsar Alexander II “the Liberator” (1818–1881). Reigned 1855–1881.

Tsar Alexander III (1845–1894). Reigned 1881–1894.

Tsar Nicholas II (1868–1918). Reigned 1894–1917.

Tsaritsa Alexandra Feodorovna (1872–1918) Hessian-born empress consort by virtue of being the spouse of Nicholas II, she reigned 1896 to 1917. A granddaughter of Queen Victoria of England who, though raised a Protestant, converted and became Russian Orthodox.


[1] While some in English use the term tsarina or czarina, the correct term is tsaritsa.

[2] Some writers use Rashel’s married name when referring to her, often hyphenated as in “Khin-Goldovskaya.” However, most refer to her simply as “Khin,” the name she used on her literary works.

[3] There is controversy about Rashel’s birth year. The year given here is confirmed by her diary.

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